Located on the Mediterranean coast, 18 km from Nice and 12 km from the Franco-Italian border, the Principality of Monaco is landlocked, except for its coastline in the territory of France. The French communities bordering Monaco are, from west to east, Cap-d'Ail, La Turbie, Beausoleil and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
Independent since 1297, the Principality of Monaco occupies an area of 2 square kilometres which, according to the Vatican, in fact, the second smallest independent state in the world. Almost entirely urbanized, the Principality of Monaco enjoys a particularly mild Mediterranean climate and has many facilities Hotellières luxury.
The principality of Monaco is divided into ten districts whose most famous are :
- Monaco-Ville, the old city on the rocky promontory entering the sea, known as the Rock
- Monte-Carlo, the main residential area and casino
- The Ténao, above Larvotto, between Saint-Roman and Place des Moulins.
- The Larvotto or area beaches.
- La Condamine, the area along the main port
- Moneghetti, residential neighborhood north west.
- Fontvieille, a new district took to the sea
In recent years, major work has enabled Monaco to expand by nearly 40 hectares, mainly earned on the sea. The earliest work infilling began in 1865 to create the track, followed a few years after by the creation of the first industrial district of Fontvieille, which helped earn 5.5 hectares on the sea.
The bottom of the port of Monaco was then filled and, in the years 1960, the Grimaldi Forum and the Larvotto were built. In 1965, an initiative of Prince Rainier III and to diversify the activities of the city, construction of the district of Fontvieille has created 220 000 m2 of new land for construction, as well as a new port.
The geographical location of Monaco and its Mediterranean climate has always made the principality a destination for tourists. Tourism has always been primarily oriented clientele luxury, attracted by the many sporting and cultural events, casinos (including the famous Casino de Monte-Carlo), but the tourism sector has recently redeployed to the tourism business , Congresses and seminars.
Many tourists who start their visit to Monaco by visiting the Palace. It is located on a geological site unique and spectacular, a rock over 60 meters high, facing the Mediterranean Sea. It was built on the site of a medieval fortress established by the Genoese which took the first Grimaldi, François Grimaldi said Le Rusé. From the fourteenth to the sixteenth century, the facade on the square was decorated with balconies. The gallery of Hercules, the Throne Room and the Court of Honour were created during the Renaissance. The sovereigns were building a new wing housing their apartments, the museum of Napoleonic memorabilia and archives of princely palaces.
In addition to your visit to the Palais and the princely gardens, do not miss the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco, built in 1889 by Prince Albert I of Monaco. It is a museum dedicated to the sea, with laboratories, collections of coins reported its explorations, aquariums fauna and flora of the seabed of the Mediterranean and dependencies.
The museum's mission is to develop and make the public aware of oceanography through historical collections Prince founder, permanent and temporary exhibitions or collections of its living aquariums.
The museum is one of the largest buildings of the rock with the palace, the only one flan on a cliff and down along the cliff to the Mediterranean Sea, 80 metres below.
Finally, one can not mention Monaco without mentioning the famous Casino de Monte-Carlo, a symbol of luxury, the Jet-Set, and risky fortunes on the green carpet.
The Casino de Monte-Carlo is one of the most prestigious and luxurious Baroque-style casinos on the planet. It belongs to the League of sea bathing Monaco and was established and inaugurated in 1865 by François Blanc, nicknamed "the magician Monte Carlo" and by Prince Charles III of Monaco (1818-1889)